Data modeling is the process of creating a data model for an information system by applying formal techniques. Data modeling is used to define and analyze the data requirements needed to support a business processes within the scope of a corresponding information system for an organization.

ER Diagram 1

The process of data modeling involves working closely with all stakeholders, including  potential users of the database.

ER Diagram 2

There are three different types of data models produced while progressing from requirements to the actual database to be used for the information system.

  1. The data requirements are initially recorded as a conceptual model which is  a set of technology independent specifications about the data and is used to discuss initial requirements with the business stakeholders.
  2. The conceptual model is then translated into a logical data model, which documents structures of the data that can be implemented in the database. Implementation of one conceptual data model may require multiple logical data models.
  3. Finally transforming the logical data model to a physical data model that organizes the data into tables, and relationships. This takes into account access, performance and storage details.

Data modeling defines not just data elements, but also their structures and the relationships between them.

Strategic data modeling

In systems analysis logical data models are created as part of the development of new databases during systems analysis

Strategic data modeling is part of the creation of an information systems strategy, which defines an overall vision and architecture for information systems.

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